Planning and Mapping of a Multi Modal Integrated Transportation System for Metro Station at Dadar, Mumbai India by Using Open-Source GIS

S Bala Subramaniyam*, Reshma Raskar-Phule

Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavans, Andheri west, Mumbai, India,

Corresponding author: S Bala Subramaniyam, Sardar Patel College of Engineering, Bhartiya Vidya Bhavans, Andheri west, Mumbai, India, E-mail:subramaniyam13@gmail.com

Citation: Bala Subramaniyam S, Reshma R (2021) Planning and Mapping of a Multi Modal Integrated Transportation System for Metro Station at Dadar, Mumbai India by Using Open-Source GIS. J Civil Engg ID 2(2):7-17.

Received Date: February 14, 2020; Accepted Date: February 24, 2020; Published Date: April 08, 2021

Abstract

GIS can be widely used in transportation policy and planning agencies, especially among urban transportation organizations. GIS offer transportation planners/decision makers a medium for storing, displaying, analysing, modelling, and simulating various spatial/ attribute data on population, land uses, and travel behaviour. In fact, GIS address potential transportation issues more efficiently, effectively, and economically than existing methods.

The present research seeks to investigate spatial accessibility of a multimodal transport system in an urbanised area with respect to the proposed or planned metro railway project in the city of Mumbai, India. From literature and current practices various factors influencing multimodality in transport are interpreted such as bus rapid transport system, mass transit system, integrated public transport system, private transport systems, pedestrian walking and more. The research aims to identify key factors in these available transport systems which may affect the efficiency or effective use of the proposed metro project such as population, location, trend and pattern of use, and importantly effectiveness for managing spatial natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods and man-made disasters like terrorist attacks.

Considering the above factors, a multimodal transport network system is developed and proposed for a metro station like Dadar located in Mumbai, India that is subjected to high density and variety of traffic population. The spatial analysis, planning and mapping is carried out in open source geographic information system (GIS) software, Quantum GIS (QGIS). The developed map proposes and shows shortest accessible routes, subways, pedestrian walkways, basement public parking lots, station integration and management for a forecasted population.

1. Introduction

The advancement of cities is uncontrollable not spontaneous but are guided by human interaction and physical infrastructure. For cities and towns to function efficiently, accessibility is essential to carry the goods and for services.

An urban area is a web of various activities and people, where the transport system connects the two. Population explosion, industrial growth and employment opportunities have resulted into unplanned urban sprawl, which has degraded the urban environment. Due to increased mobility of people, goods and services urban areas are facing issues like traffic congestion, increasing number of automobiles, lack of good transportation system and lack of integration between different transportation system.

There is a shift from conventional transportation practice to Modern transportation planning practices which are based upon the accessibility concept. It not only helps to improve transport infrastructure but also improves the travel behaviour and accessibility to various land uses.

1.1 Study area

Dadar is the first planned area of Mumbai. It is a densely populated residential and shopping neighbourhood. It is also a prominent railway and bus service hub with local and national connectivity. Dadar is a prominent railway terminus on both central and western lines of Mumbai railway network. It is the only common railway station for both central and western lines making it a transit point for many passengers. Currently Metro 3 project is under construction which is completely underground metro rail project in Mumbai.

Figure 1: Map showing study area

2. Methodology

The work flow for the present study is shown in Figure2. Site visits were carried out frequently during the work to find out traffic congestions, bus-routes, pedestrian walkways, Modal share, Integrated Public Transports (IPT), to check ease of access to proposed metro station.

The data collection was done using origin and destination survey. The existing land use pattern with the existing transportation facilities was studied. The spatial data involves geospatial data like location size and shape whereas the non-spatial data are the numbers characters and logic types.

A modal survey as carried out for which Questionnaire was prepared (refer annexure) and survey was carried out at Andheri metro station and at Dadar station during the peak hours. The main aim of the survey was to find main mode of transport used during trips of work.

2.1 Data collection

Spatial and Non-spatial data was collected for the proposed metro station through different means and methods such as physical or on-site survey and through various online and government sources as described here.

Figure 2: Flow chart showing flow of work carried out

2.1.1 Non-Spatial or Physical Data Collection

A detailed physical survey for 3 hours has been carried out for collection of location, frequency of use, and existing condition of the transportation routes in the surrounding areas of the proposed underground Dadar metro station. A real-time study was carried out for the study of existing pattern of vehicular movement through physical survey and google maps at the surrounding areas. It is seen from Figure 3; the Google map shows that the area is subjected to medium to heavy traffic during peak hours. The traffic survey of that area on the same routes during a peak hour gave an approximate frequency to the vehicular movement, say red colour indicates 200 vehicles per hour and orange colour indicates 100 vehicles per hour forming traffic congestion.

Next, the number of stops, their location and the frequency of the routes is studied with the help of physical survey and M-indicator mobile application. The study shows that there are total 16 bus stops in the surroundings of the proposed metro station and a total 767 buses pass daily on various routes from the proposed metro station. Figure 4 shows a sample route study of bus Route for Bus no.86 -Bandar bus station to Back Bay depot.

Table 1 depicts the bus stops, the origin and destination, frequency and journey time. In addition to this, it is observed that MCGM has permitted street parking at various locations. According to the on-site surveys carried out, following congestion points were found: in front of Shivasena Bhawan, Kabutar Khana, Patkar Guruji Chowk, Kavi Keshavsut flyover.

Pedestrian traffic is also observed, especially during peak hours, at the ends of Dadar Metro Station on the Gokhale Road and the footpaths were occupied by street vendors. The network of roads and footpaths is almost properly planned and are in good condition. The study of existing street furniture, public facilities, and street lighting shows that not enough street furniture like street lights, bollards, recycle and litter bins, seating, drinking water facility, washrooms, planters, etc are available whereas the area provides good amount of existing green landscape with available parks and gardens such as Shivaji park, Kotwal gardens and Matoshri Rama bai Thakare Udyan.

Considering the safety and security facilities with respect to the proposed metro station, it is noted that Dadar Fire Station is located at a distance of 2.2 km from the Dadar metro station, Dadar police station is at a distance of 1.6 km from the metro station, security cameras are available at various spots such as Dadar railway station, Tilak bridge, Plaza cinema, Suvidha mall near Dadar Station, Kabutarkhana, Shivsenabhavan, and Shivaji Natya Mandir.

Figure 3: Google map of the proposed area showing vehicular movement pattern

Figure 4: Route map of bus route passing through proposed area

2.1.2 Spatial or Attribute Data Collection

The comprehensive mobility plan of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) was studied thoroughly. It is observed that pedestrian mode of transport is highly adopted as compared to public transport and integrated public transport. Private transportation mode is least used.

The difference in the number of public and private vehicles using the proposed area over approximately 10 years (2005 and 2014), as shown in Table 1, clearly indicates that there is 12 % increase in public transport, while above 100% increase in private transport. Therefore, there is a need of diverting the human traffic to public transport.

Table 1: BEST bus route survey

Bus

No.

Source

Destination

Frequency

Journeytime(min)

4

Hutatama Chowk

Oshiwara depot

45

21

40

P. ThakreUdyan

Borivali station E

43

20

440

Wadala Depot

Borivali station E

56

12

92

Anushakti Nagar

World trade centre

27

31

521

Bandra RECL

R C church

42

12

35

Marolmaroshi bus station

Com P K Kurnechowk

29

18

39

Com P K KurneChowk

Seepz bus station

29

29

51

SantaCruz depot

Colaba Bus station

45

23

62

Central depot R/P

Vidyavihar B. Station

22

32

200

Yari Rd Versova

Shravan Y Rd

38

17

201

GoregoanB.station

P.ThakreUdyan

51

14

241

Malvani depot

Wadala depot

55

15

2

Colaba depot

Agarkarchowk

42

14

33

PT. PlauskarChowk

Goregoan bus station

41

15

37

J Mehta Marg

Kurla station

75

10

86

Bandra depot

Backbay depot

32

21

2.2 Analysis

The existing distribution of the commuting population with respect to mode of transportation shows that there is more load on the pedestrian traffic (71%) as compared to public transport (16%). Keeping this factor in mind, the proposed modal share, as shown in Fig. 6, has been worked out wherein more weight age is given to the use of public transport (39%).This way the commuting time will be reduced and public transport will be efficiently used thereby generating good revenue.

Analysis of this collected data has been done using pie-chart. Dadar western railway station is at 800m from the proposed metro station thereby depicting the importance of the line connectivity, metro (proposed) to railway (existing), and the inter modal integration of the proposed metro station with buses, IPT and private pickups, and also the pedestrian traffic.

2.3 Preparation of Maps

The maps were prepared using QGIS. As it is open-source cross platform and free application. It is faster than most of the software. It uses less time for processing because of the intern structure. The study area was opened in Open-street map as shown in Figure 7(a).

The existing attributes and land-use pattern were plotted by extracting data from OSM database as shown in Figure 7(b).

After running all the queries search and plotting features on map. A tour to the study area was done again to find missing features and plotted missing features manually as shown in Figure 7©. The prepared map was taken to print composer and additional detailing as shown in Figure 7(d) was done.

Figure 5: Map showing land-use pattern

Figure 6: Pie chart showing existing Modal Share

Table 2: Table showing variation in Modal share

Figure 7(a): Screenshot of QGIS showing study area

Figure 7(b): Screenshot of queries searched to plot the map

Figure 7(c): Screenshot of study area map after plotting buildings

Figure 7(d): Map taken to print composer after plotting Land-use data

Figure 7(e): Final map showing existing land use pattern

3. Results

The proposed Dadar metro station is an underground station located in a high development density zone. The existing land use pattern with the existing transportation facilities such as railways and road routes schools, hospitals, etc. Dadar western railway station is at 800m from the proposed metro station thereby depicting the importance of the line connectivity, metro (proposed) to railway (existing), and the inter modal integration of the proposed metro station with buses, IPT and private pickups, and also the pedestrian traffic.

The existing distribution of the commuting population with respect to mode of transportation as shown in Fig.6 shows that there is more load is on the pedestrian traffic (71%) as compared to public transport (16%). Keeping this factor in mind, the proposed modal share as shown in Fig. 08 has been worked out wherein more weight age is given to the use of public transport (39%). This way the commuting time will be reduced and public transport will be efficiently used thereby generating good revenue.

Figure 8: Pie chart showing proposed Modal Share

Figure 9: Proposed Concept plan

Subway

To minimize the traffic on the N C Kelkar road a Subway has been proposed as shown in the proposed plan, Fig.09, which will connect Dadar western railway station to Dadar Metro Station and extended to the proposed basement parking lot planned below Shivaji Park. The subway will be 800 m in length, 6 m wide including 1 m horizontal escalator for the benefit of the senior citizens, pregnant women, physically challenged. The proposed Subway will branch into 9 entry/exit points (e). As shown in Sheet 2 (proposed plan), ‘e1’ is the proposed entrance of basement parking, ‘e2’ is provided near Shivaji Park for basement parking, ‘e3’ opening is at Dr. Madhukar Raut Marg, ‘e4’ is at Dada sahib Rege Marg, ‘e5’ opening is near BS1, ‘e6’ is at Ram Maruti Marg, ‘e7’ is near IPT1, ‘e8’is near BS2, ‘e9’is near Plaza Cinema, and ‘e10’ is near BS3.

Figure 9(a): Subway connecting Dadar railway station and metro station

Basement Parking

Next, for the parking facilities, the basement parking for a capacity of 200 vehicles (two way stack) in an area of 4000 sq.m, i.e. 80m x 50m, approximately is proposed below existing Shivaji park area as shown in Fig.9(b), The design of the proposed parking area is based on the on-site vehicle parking count during peak hours, existing street parking, as per the National Building Code (NBC). The entrance ramp of the basement parking is proposed at ‘e1’ on Keluskar road and the exit at Shivaji Park Road No. 1 as shown in Fig.9 (b). Two-wheeler parking has been proposed on adjacent to the Metro Station as shown in the Sheet 2.

Figure 9(b): Basement Parking

Bus Stop

For the convenience of the people, Bus stops ‘BS1’ and BS2’ have been proposed near Dadar Metro Station on N C Kelkar Road (BS1) and on Ranade Road (BS4) as shown in the Figure 9(c). As per our findings based on origin and destination survey, these stops have maximum routes. In order to minimise the traffic and reduce walking time, Bus Stop ‘BS2’ is proposed. There is an existing bus stop ‘BS3’. Bus bays have been proposed at nearby existing bus stops and proposed bus stops in order to avoid blocking of roads.

Figure 9(c): Bus stops and IPTs

IPTs

Due to the existing IPT parking there is increase in traffic congestion. Hence, authorised IPT parking stands have been proposed, as shown in Sheet 2. ‘IPT1’ is on N C Kelkar Road, ‘IPT2’ is on extended Gokhale Road, and ‘IPT3’ is on Ranade Road.

Bins

In order to minimize littering, waste receptacles are provided at an interval of 20 m in the Subway as well as on the streets, making it highly visible. They are also provided near all bus stops, IPT stands, proposed basement parking and in the station box area. Drinking water facility is provided along with wash rooms at all Bus stops, IPT stands, Basement parking and Station box area as shown in Sheet 2.

Street Furniture

Various street furniture has been proposed to create the setting for resting, sitting and eating, and social encounters with others. Seating facilities, such as benches, are proposed at every 50m to 60m, on heavy pedestrian use like retail shopping corridors, transit stops, plazas in order to integrate within the spaces where people wait, meet, or socialize along with the needs of the disabled and senior citizens. To help people balance on steps and platforms railings are provided along the edges of the station and staircases. For the physically challenged kerb ramps are proposed. For visually impaired people tactile paving, raised table-top crossings, auditory signals are to proposed to guide them without any trouble. Braille script also proposed in lifts, ticket counters, vending machines, washrooms, etc.. Keeping in mind weather protected design, antiskid pavement is proposed. For emergencies like fire, fire alarm systems and sprinklers installation is proposed. For safety and security CCTV cameras and Emergency calling booth is proposed at bus stops, IPT, railway station, and proposed metro station box area. Lighting is especially important at building entrances, intersections, stairs, sudden changes in grade, dead ends, and remote walkways. LED bulbs, which can cut the energy consumption of lighting by 40-70% can be used, thus making it sustainable. For ventilation air ducts are proposed over the proposed underground metro station roof. For checking of any threats security X-ray machines are proposed at all entries and exits. To guide traffic and mark boundaries on the road, bollards and traffic barriers are proposed to be installed. For aesthetic look landscape on the road side and the medians is proposed.

4. Summary and Findings

The present study focused on the existing transportation available at the proposed metro station. After a rigorous spatial and non-spatial data collection of the proposed area in aspects of traffic density, available modes of transportation, conflict areas, better existing facilities, poorly designed existing transport routes, a concept plan is designed and proposed for optimization and integration of the available modes of transportation in connection with proposed metro station at Dadar, that leads to increasing the user or commuter’s efficiency.

The major contribution of the proposed study is the proposed provision of underground subway connecting the proposed metro station to Dadar western railway station, entry/exit to maximum number of existing streets, bus stops, IPTs, and the proposed basement parking which would avoid pedestrian traffic on the existing narrow footpaths. The other idea of providing huge basement automated parking system below the existing Shivaji park area will provide systematic control of the vehicles especially during peak hours, ease in the traffic movement from and toward the metro station, reducing on road or street parking, ease in vehicular traffic diversions, and finally less air pollution.

5. Conclusion

From the present study and the proposed work, it can be concluded that for a developing densely populated and crowded area like Dadar, the proposed concept plan for the proposed Dadar underground metro station would provide a good solution to the present transportation problems in this area and would provide a good line connectivity of the proposed metro station with the existing modes of transportation with less disturbance to the existing spatial pattern and traffic pattern.

References

  1. CED 46 (8068) WC Draft National Building Code of India. 2005.

  2. Comprehensive Mobility Plan (CMP) for Greater Mumbai. Final Report Executive Summary. LEA Associates South Asia Pvt.  Ltd.  India. 2016. 

  3. Data and Maps provided by MMRCL

  4. Indian Road Congress (IRC). 69:1977. IRC 70:1977 and IRC 103:2012.

  5. M. Hvidberg. Urban Land Use Mapping Using Register Data and standard GIS. 2001.

  6. Main Bill, Hannah Gail Greet. Site Furnishings: A Complete Guide to the Planning, Selection and Use of Landscape Furniture and Amenities. John Wiley & Sons. 2010;13-14.

  7. NZTA. Pedestrian planning and design guide. New Zealand Transport Agency. 2009; Wellington.

  8. PB Tamsekar, SB Thorat. Planning Support SYSTEM FOR Urban and Regional Area Using GIS.

  9. Roy Chowdhury A, Bansal R. Bhat A. Gandhi S. On foot and pedal, Down to Earth. 2012.

  10. Shoujie Li, Meng Meng, Soi Hoi Lam and Yiik Diew Wong. Optimal Coordination Strategy for an Integrated Multimodal and Multi operator Transit System: Case of Singapore. 2015;142(2):1.

  11. Tao Zeng , Dawei Hu, Guolang Huang. 13th COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals. The Transportation Mode Distribution of Multimodal Transportation in Automotive Logistics. 2013;1.CICTP.

  12. Tejas Rawal, V Devadas, Nand Kumar. Conference Paper. Integrated Multi-modal Transportation in India. 2014.

  13. Urban Street Design Guidelines. Pune Municipal Corporation. Version I:2016.

Websites and Mobile Applications

  1. Gökçen FirdevsYücel. Chapter on Street Furniture and Amenities: Designing the User-Oriented Urban Landscape. 2013. 

  2. M-indicator, google app., public transport app, accessed for bus route no. and frequency.

  3. Status paper on road safety in India. 2019. 

  4. https://thecityfix.com/blog/on-the-move-future-multimodal-integration-akshay-mani/